The Hubble Constant as the Angular Velocity of Light in the Closed Universe

In the mainstream cosmology the Hubble constant characterizes the rate of the Universe expansion, and the Hubble "constant" is changing there with the age of Universe. In this work the Hubble constant characterizes the rate of space-time macroscopic rotation. Compare: Plank constant characterized the rate of microscopic space-time rotation. Thus, in this work we have the real Hubble CONSTANT. It has the simplest physical meaning, - frequency of light rotation in closed Universe, Н, measured in rotations per second, or the angular velocity of light, Ħ=2pН. Compare it with Plank constant: ħ=h/(2p). The Hubble constant can be measured in the units used in cosmology, km/s/Mpc.

In the following table there are some values of Hubble constant, measured or calculated in different methods:

Method Used Authors Value, km/s/Mpc
Cepheid variables in distant galaxies W. Freedman et al (1999) 70 +/- 7
M101 group velocity and distance Sandage and Tammann (1974) 55.5 +/- 8.7
Virgo Cluster Peebles (1977) 42 - 77
Globular Clusters Hanes (1979) 80 +/- 11
Virgo Sc HII luminosities Kennicutt (1981) 55
Type I supernovae Branch (1979) 56 +/- 15
Type I supernovae Sandage and Tammann (1982) 50 +/- 7
Infrared Tully-Fisher relation Aaronson and Mould (1983) 82 +/- 10
SN-Ia and Cepheids Sandage, et al. (1994) 55 +/- 8
Cepheids in Virgo (M100) Freedman, et al. (1994) 80 +/- 17
Surface Brightness Fluctuation Tully (1993) 90 +/- 10
Final Results from the Hubble Space Telescope
Key Project to Measure the Hubble Constant
(2000) W. L. Freedman, B. F. Madore, B. K. Gibson, L. Ferrarese, D. D. Kelson, S. Sakai, J. R. Mould, R. C. Kennicutt, Jr., H. C. Ford, J. A. Graham, J. P. Huchra, S. M. G. Hughes, G. D. Illingworth, L. M. Macri, P. B. Stetson 72 +/- 8
In the February, 2003, the results of the first year of WMAP observations were released. (WMAP = Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) WMAP Science Team

WMAPext+2dF =
Different methods give values:

73 +/- 5
73 +/- 3

Alternative methods

- -
Shear Method, (Superconductivity,..) HU=sqr(PU/(mUVU)) Richard D. Saam (1999) 76 (or 2.47E-18 1/sec)
Stability of Solar system.
Quantum numbers for planets was unknown yet.
Average value of H was received through: H = Gm/(r2c), where m - masses of a planets or their satellites.
My result (about 1990) 50-100
Vacuum lattice method.
Coefficient was incorrect.
Calculated through: H=mprc2/hN2, N=2/3*sqr(24/(fgr/fel)e-e*a/3)
Me and M.Geilhaupt (1998) 64.75 (or 2.099E-18 rot/s)
Vacuum lattice 1999.
Calculated through: H=mprc2/hN2, N2=ap(fel/fgr)el-el
My result, (1999) 73.29 (or 2.375E-18 rot/s)
Vacuum lattice 1999G'.
Calculated through:
H=mprc2/hN2, N2=ap(fel/fgr)el-el
G' = 1/Exp(a+1/a) = 3.0398509(15)E-60
G' = N(fgr/fel)pr-el/(2p2) = 3.0398509(15)E-60
G' = (a/e0/G)1/2e/mel/2 = 3.0398509(15)E-60
G = (G'e3/4/a1/2/e03/2/mel/mpr2)2/3 = 6.671480(24)E-11   Nm2/kg2
My result
(November, 1999)
73.275098(26) (or 2.37468420(84)E-18 rot/s)
Vacuum lattice 2001H.
Hydrogen atom was used instead proton. Calculated through:
H=mHc2/hN2, N2=ap(fel/fgr)el-el,
mH mass of hydrogen atom
My result
(February, 2001)
(or 2,376378745E-18 rot/s)
(if G=6.672606660E-11 N*kg2/m2)

(if G=6.67259(85)E-11 N*kg2/m2)

Quantum stability of Solar system.
Calculated through: H = Gm/(nr)2/c, where:
m - mass of a planet;
n - resonant number to which a planet
or its satellite trends:
Mercury - 3, Earth - 5, Mars - 1, Saturn - 5, Uranus - 1...
My result
(February, 2001)
(if G=6.671480(24)E-11 N*kg2/m2)

(if G=6.67259(85)E-11 N*kg2/m2)

Solar stability
Calculated through: L = GM2H/(4l0), where: M - mass of the stable star, MSun = 1.9891E+30 kg, L- luminosity of a star, LSun = 3.846E+26 W, l0 - boundary wave length (look the table on the page Physical Constants), or gravity mirror radius, relatively which two halves of the Sun "expand" accordingly Hubble law. The change of potential energy of two halves of the Sun in one second is equal to the capacity or luminosity of the Sun.
My result
(24 February, 2001)


Alpha method
It is known:
Rydberg/Bohr = Bohr/Compton = Compton/class. = 1/a.
Almost proved hypothesis:
... = Hubble/Schwarzschild = ... = 1/a
As a result we have the density of the Universe:
=2aH2/G. (Compare with:
My result
(29 January, 2002)
If we use the upper received value of Hubble constant 73.275, we'll have the radiation/gravity pressure ratio about 1.022, and the temperature of CMB will be smaller then observable in 1.0055 times. If you go back you will have the similar error in the Hubble constant.
(The best temperature for smaller/bigger shifting is: 2.728043K)
Galaxies-ghosts + Alpha method.

This result proves the static/stationary models of the Universe build by Einstein, Hoyle, Kozyrev...

Hot Big Bang predicts nothing. Stationary model of Universe is much more fruitful and interesting.

My result
(13 February, 2002)
If we use the upper received value of Hubble constant 73.275098(26) and G = 6.671480(24)E-11m3/kg/s2, then we have such characteristics of CMB:
u = 4.2039878E-14 J/m3,
p = 1.4013293E-14 Pa,
T = 2.7302482 K.

Gravithermal spectrum has the same characteristics as the electromagnetic spectrum but with opposite sign.

ugr = - uem,
pgr = - pem.

Grand Unification method.

Postulate: Gravity force between two masses, situated on the poles, has an extreme. Consequently, it is described by the same law as three others forces. Relative density of the Universe is it's normalized charge. The square of the normalized charge is the constant of gravity interactions:

W2 = agr ,

At Grand Unification energies these constants converge:

agr = aweak = astrong = (8/3) aem.

After some transformations we'll have the connection between the Hubble constant and the CMB temperature:

H=16T2 sqrt(2Gp3s / (3c3a)).

Look the page CMBR = +Dark Energy.

My result
(7 February, 2003)

If TCBR=2.725(1)K,
then: H=73.127(59) km/s/Mpc.

If the Vacuum lattice 1999 method is correct, then at first we compute the Hubble constant, H=73.305(11) km/s/Mpc, and after we compute the CBR temperature: TCBR_computed = 2.72832(10)K.
Here we used the CODATA-2002 values.
The cause of some error between observable and computed temperatures is the circumstance that our computed temperature is the effective one.



Magnetic similarity.

The more precise theoretical value of gravity constant was used.

G' = 1/Exp(1/a)
G=hc(aG'/mpr2/mel)2/3/21/3/z4 =
6,6730102(37) 10-11 Nm2/kg2
z - ratio of magnetic dipole moment of electron to Bohr magneton.

My result
(February, 2006)
H = 73,291909(81) km/s/Mpc =
2,3752290(26) 10-18  rot/s.

Unifying the upper results, we can conclude, that the Hubble constant with great part of credibility is:

H = 73.2+/-0.2 km/s/Mpc

I think that the result H = 73,291909(81) km/s/Mpc is also quite reliable. This follows from my analysis of the movement of electron's links in my VB-program  
And also from the analysis of my Exel-program
More precise value of gravity constant you can find in the line Magnetic similarity. Copy there G and DG and paste them in the line Newtonian constant of gravitation. Bottom values will change immediately.

The upper 11 results in the table were taken from the article Lifting the Veil on Hubble's Constant.
Some other pages about Hubble constant:
Hubble Finds Variable Stars in Distant Spiral Galaxy
Hubble Measures the Expanding Universe
The Expansion Rate and Size of the Universe., W.L. Freedman. From Scientific American, March 1998.
Edwin Powell Hubble -- Biographical Memoir

Here are links to some abstracts about Hubble constant:
Anisotropy of the Hubble Constant in a Cosmological Model with a Local Void on Scales of ~ 200 Mpc
The Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuation Hubble Constant
Supernova 1991T and the Value of the Hubble Constant
Type Ia Supernovae and the Value of the Hubble Constant
The Hubble Constant from SZE Measurements in Low-Redshift Clusters
The Hubble Constant from (CLASS) Gravitational Lenses
A Determination of the Hubble Constant from Cepheid Distances and a Model of the Local Peculiar Velocity Field
Hubble Constant at Intermediate Redshift using the CO-Line Tully-Fisher Relation
Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations of the Coma Elliptical NGC 4874 and the Value of the Hubble Constant
Arguments for a Hubble Constant near H0 = 55
Type Ia Supernovae, the Hubble Constant, the Cosmological Constant, and the Age of the Universe
Final Results from the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project to Measure the Hubble Constant
Bibliography of WMAP Science Team Publications

To index of Space Genetics,
This page was last updated: the 17 of November, 2008, by
Ivan Gorelik (my resume, coordinates and e-mail)


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