In the mainstream cosmology the Hubble constant characterizes the rate of the Universe expansion, and the Hubble "constant" is changing there with the age of Universe. In this work the Hubble constant characterizes the rate of space-time macroscopic rotation. Compare: Plank constant characterized the rate of microscopic space-time rotation. Thus, in this work we have the real Hubble CONSTANT. It has the simplest physical meaning, - frequency of light rotation in closed Universe, Н, measured in rotations per second, or the angular velocity of light, Ħ=2pН. Compare it with Plank constant: ħ=h/(2p). The Hubble constant can be measured in the units used in cosmology, km/s/Mpc.
|Method Used||Authors||Value, km/s/Mpc|
|Cepheid variables in distant galaxies||W. Freedman et al (1999)||70 +/- 7|
|M101 group velocity and distance||Sandage and Tammann (1974)||55.5 +/- 8.7|
|Virgo Cluster||Peebles (1977)||42 - 77|
|Globular Clusters||Hanes (1979)||80 +/- 11|
|Virgo Sc HII luminosities||Kennicutt (1981)||55|
|Type I supernovae||Branch (1979)||56 +/- 15|
|Type I supernovae||Sandage and Tammann (1982)||50 +/- 7|
|Infrared Tully-Fisher relation||Aaronson and Mould (1983)||82 +/- 10|
|SN-Ia and Cepheids||Sandage, et al. (1994)||55 +/- 8|
|Cepheids in Virgo (M100)||Freedman, et al. (1994)||80 +/- 17|
|Surface Brightness Fluctuation||Tully (1993)||90 +/- 10|
Key Project to Measure the Hubble Constant
|(2000) W. L. Freedman, B. F. Madore, B. K. Gibson, L. Ferrarese, D. D. Kelson, S. Sakai, J. R. Mould, R. C. Kennicutt, Jr., H. C. Ford, J. A. Graham, J. P. Huchra, S. M. G. Hughes, G. D. Illingworth, L. M. Macri, P. B. Stetson||72 +/- 8|
|In the February, 2003, the results of the first year
||WMAP Science Team
||Different methods give values:
73 +/- 5
73 +/- 3
|Shear Method, (
||Richard D. Saam (1999)||76 (or 2.47E-18 1/sec)|
|Stability of Solar system.
Quantum numbers for planets was unknown yet.
Average value of H was received through: H = Gm/(r2c), where m - masses of a planets or their satellites.
|My result (about 1990)||50-100|
|Vacuum lattice method.
Coefficient was incorrect.
Calculated through: H=mprc2/hN2, N=2/3*sqr(24/(fgr/fel)e-e*a/3)
|Me and M.Geilhaupt (1998)||64.75 (or 2.099E-18 rot/s)|
|Vacuum lattice 1999.
Calculated through: H=mprc2/hN2, N2=ap(fel/fgr)el-el
|My result, (1999)||73.29 (or 2.375E-18 rot/s)|
|Vacuum lattice 1999G'.
G' = 1/Exp(a+1/a) = 3.0398509(15)E-60
G' = N(fgr/fel)pr-el/(2p2) = 3.0398509(15)E-60
G' = (a/e0/G)1/2e/mel/2 = 3.0398509(15)E-60
G = (G'e3/4/a1/2/e03/2/mel/mpr2)2/3 = 6.671480(24)E-11 Nm2/kg2
|73.275098(26) (or 2.37468420(84)E-18 rot/s)|
|Vacuum lattice 2001H.
Hydrogen atom was used instead proton. Calculated through:
mH mass of hydrogen atom
(or 2,376378745E-18 rot/s)
(if G=6.672606660E-11 N*kg2/m2)
|Quantum stability of Solar system.
Calculated through: H = Gm/(nr)2/c, where:
m - mass of a planet;
n - resonant number to which a planet
or its satellite trends:
Mercury - 3, Earth - 5, Mars - 1, Saturn - 5, Uranus - 1...
(if G=6.671480(24)E-11 N*kg2/m2)
Calculated through: L = GM2H/(4l0), where: M - mass of the stable star, MSun = 1.9891E+30 kg, L- luminosity of a star, LSun = 3.846E+26 W, l0 - boundary wave length (look the table on the page Physical Constants), or gravity mirror radius, relatively which two halves of the Sun "expand" accordingly Hubble law. The change of potential energy of two halves of the Sun in one second is equal to the capacity or luminosity of the Sun.
(24 February, 2001)
It is known:
Rydberg/Bohr = Bohr/Compton = Compton/class. = 1/a.
Almost proved hypothesis:
... = Hubble/Schwarzschild = ... = 1/a
As a result we have the density of the Universe:
r=2aH2/G. (Compare with:
(29 January, 2002)
|If we use the upper received value of Hubble constant
73.275, we'll have the radiation/gravity pressure ratio about 1.022,
and the temperature of CMB will be smaller then observable in 1.0055
times. If you go back you will have the similar error in the Hubble
(The best temperature for smaller/bigger shifting is: 2.728043K)
|Galaxies-ghosts + Alpha method.
This result proves the static/stationary models of the Universe build by Einstein, Hoyle, Kozyrev...
Hot Big Bang predicts nothing. Stationary model of Universe is much more fruitful and interesting.
(13 February, 2002)
|If we use the upper received value of Hubble constant
73.275098(26) and G = 6.671480(24)E-11m3/kg/s2,
then we have such characteristics of CMB:
u = 4.2039878E-14 J/m3,
p = 1.4013293E-14 Pa,
T = 2.7302482 K.
Gravithermal spectrum has the same characteristics as the electromagnetic spectrum but with opposite sign.
ugr = - uem,
|Grand Unification method.
Postulate: Gravity force between two masses, situated on the poles, has an extreme. Consequently, it is described by the same law as three others forces. Relative density of the Universe is it's normalized charge. The square of the normalized charge is the constant of gravity interactions:
W2 = agr ,
At Grand Unification energies these constants converge:
agr = aweak = astrong = (8/3) aem.
After some transformations we'll have the connection between the Hubble constant and the CMB temperature:
H=16T2 sqrt(2Gp3s / (3c3a)).
Look the page CMBR = +Dark Energy.
(7 February, 2003)
If the Vacuum lattice 1999 method is
correct, then at first we compute the Hubble constant, H=73.305(11)
km/s/Mpc, and after we compute the CBR temperature: TCBR_computed
The more precise theoretical value of gravity constant was used.
G' = 1/Exp(1/a)
|H = 73,291909(81) km/s/Mpc =
2,3752290(26) 10-18 rot/s.
Unifying the upper results, we can conclude, that the Hubble constant with great part of credibility is:
H = 73.2+/-0.2 km/s/Mpc
I think that the result H = 73,291909(81) km/s/Mpc is also quite
reliable. This follows from my analysis of the movement of electron's links in my
And also from the analysis of my Exel-program http://darkenergy.narod.ru/data.xls
More precise value of gravity constant you can find in the line Magnetic similarity. Copy there G and DG and paste them in the line Newtonian constant of gravitation. Bottom values will change immediately.
The upper 11 results in the table were taken from the article
Some other pages about Hubble constant:
Here are links to some abstracts about Hubble constant:
To index of Space Genetics,
This page was last updated: the 17 of November, 2008, by
Ivan Gorelik (my resume, coordinates and e-mail)