CMB = + Dark Energy

All is relative in this world.

The biggest error of Einstein, the author of relativity theory, is hidden in his words
that his biggest error is the introduction of lambda-coefficient.

The supporters of Big Bang theory say that the cosmic microwave background radiation is the radiant heat left over from the Big Bang. But Big Bang is only hypothesis. From our point of view the Universe is static. Ever Young Universe is much more interesting. Static model has much more paradoxical properties. The supporters of Big Bang hypothesis are imprisonment in the narrow frames of Big Bang. They try to explain the origination of galaxies, but at the same time they are blind and cannot recognize the mothers and fathers of contemporary galaxies in the distant quasars. They cannot see the processes of galaxies reproduction, the ways of transfer of genetic information from already died galaxies-ancestors to newborn galaxies. They predicted CMB radiation, but cannot predict its precise characteristics: temperature, pressure and energy. They even invented the dark energy, but are blind to see that just the CMB plays the role of positive dark energy in the Universe.

Computation shows that the Universe is closed. Its two-dimensional model can be imagined in the form of sphere. In the closed world there are no straight lines. The gravity force lines are fastening the sphere tightly and try to collapse it. In the sphere the gravity forces are not only the attracting agents between the massive objects. They remind also the surface forces in the soap-babble. Gravity forces lines try to gather together the film of a sphere. But a vast amount of CMB photons are also existing in the Universe. The quantity of CMB photons is many thousands times bigger than the quantity of visible photons emitted by stars of galaxies. Every photon tries to move straightly; but it is forced to turn and turn constantly; and is forced to move along the curved surface of the Universes sphere. Thus, photons try to straighten the film of the sphere; and thus, tries to make it bigger. It is evidently that in the static model the straightening forces of CMB radiation compensate the fastening forces of gravity.

In his original theory Einstein had build the static model, and in order to support the Universe from the gravity collapse, he had introduced the antigravity lambda-coefficient. He could predict the CMB radiation much earlier than the supporters of Big Bang hypothesis did. But Einstein had through out the lambda-coefficient. For almost eighty years the antigravity was forgotten. The observations in recent years had forced the Big Bang scientists to reincarnate the lambda-coefficient, which earlier was the property of static model supporters.

In the bottom we will show how the static model gives the exact values of the CMB characteristics. Conclusions made here are not applicable to Big Bang hypothesis, because correct Big Bang is Eternal Big Bang, and Eternal Big Bang is the model of Ever Young Universe.

Let's transfer from investigation of the spherical film to the cross section of the closed world, which can be divided on the multitude of spheres. Let's sum up the surface forces applied through the section, and compute the negative gravity pressure applied to this cross section. Let's divide all matter on two equal parts, and place these parts on the opposite poles of the closed world. The resulting gravity force, applied to any of these parts will be equal zero. It can be understandable if you imagine two ships, situated in the different poles of some water planet. These two ships are connected with large quantity of ropes-meridians, force lines. Ropes pull in different directions and the resulting force will be zero. But on the equator the resulting force of ropes-meridians will not be zero.

F = G (M/2)2 / (2L)2. (1)

L - distance from the Pole to Equator.

L = R(p/2), (2)

R - curvature radius of the Universe.

But in the case of the Universe the Equator id not a line , a but sphere with the area S.

S = 4pR2. (3)

Let's divide (1)/(3) and receive the negative gravitational pressure p. To be more precise, it's transverse part. Transverse pressure acts on the curved space, longitudinal pressure acts oh the matter.

p = -F/S = - G M2 / R4 / p3/16. (4)

Now we'll use the expressions for mass and for the volume of the closed Universe M = rV, V=2p2R3, and we'll receive:

p  = - G r2 R2 p/4. (5)

The CMB radiation creates positive longitudinal pressure on the mater and transverse pressure on the curved space.

Let's situate two sources of light on the Poles. The transverse pressure on the equatorial surface will be:

p = n 2 i / S, (6)

where: n - the quantity of photons, emitted by the source every second;
the number "2" appears because the photon, after transition of one halve of the big circumference of the Universe, changes it's moment on opposite;
i - the moment of one photon.

Energy of one photon: E = i c.
Power of the source: W = E n.
Then pressure will be: p = 2W / (S c)
The Universe will be filled by photons in the period of the time: T = pR / c.
The sources will spend such energy: Q = WT.
The pressure: p = 2 Q / (p R S).
Extract the energy: Q = p  p R S / 2.
Energy can also be expressed through the specific energy u, and the volume: Q = Vu, V=2p2R3.


u = Q / (2p2R3).
u = p p R S / 2 / (2 p2 R3).
u = p S / (4 p R2).
u = p. (7)

It's wonderful!
We know that the "straight" pressure of light is equal to one thirds of specific energy (pon_matter = u/3), but the "transverse" pressure on the curved space is: pon_space= u. (By the way in two dimensional case we also have: pon_matter = u/2; pon_space = u.) Thus, we have made a discovery, and have found the magic Einstein's medium, for which the pressure is equal to it's specific energy.

From (5) and (7):

u = G r 2 R2  p/ 4. (8)

And now is the second great moment - the Grand Unification!

Postulate: Gravity force between two masses, situated on the poles, has an extreme. Consequently, it is described by the same law as three others forces. Relative density of the Universe is it's normalized charge. The square of the normalized charge is the constant of gravity interactions:

W2 = agr , (9)

At Grand Unification energies these constants converge:

agr = aweak = astrong = (8/3) aem. (10)

The coefficient 8/3 before the electromagnetic constant had appeared because of normalization. For more details see: Okun L.B. "Fizika Elementarnyh Chastits". 1988. pp.92-94. (In Russian).

Thus, W is the ratio of the matter density to the critical density of the Universe. Consequently:

rW rc. (11)

It is also known:

rc = 3H2 / (8pG). (12)

H - Habble constant.

From (9) and (10):

W = ((8/3)aem)1/2. (13)

From (11), (12) and (13):

r = 3H2 / (8pG) * ((8/3)aem)1/2. (14)

From (8) and (14):

u = 3/G H4 / (32p) aem R2 . (15)

In our static/stationary model of the Universe, the Hubble constant is the angular velocity of light, and it can be expressed through the curvature radius:

H = c /(2pR). (16)

From (15) and (16):

u = 3/G * c2H2 / (128p3) aem  . (17)

One can exclude the Hubble constant using the equation:

npr / nmin = ap df. (18)

nmax - Compton frequency of proton;
nmin - Hubble constant, H.
df - forces ratio for two electrons.

From (17) we can find the specific energy of the CMB radiation. In order to find the temperature we use the formula:

T = (u c / 4 / s)1/4 . (19)

Thus we can have:

T = 2.72832 +/- 0.00010 K.

Observable temperature according to different sources are:
T = 2.728 +/- 0.004 K,
T = 2.725 +/- 0.002 K
T = 2.725 +/- 0.001 K.

Moreover, this method had proved that the value of Hubble constant used in this work:

H = (2.37565 +/- 0.00035)*10-18 1/c,
or: H = (73.305 +/- 0.011) km/c/Mpc.

Observation gives:
H = 72 +/- 8 km/c/Mpc; Final Results from the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project to Measure the Hubble Constant 2000.
H = 72 +/- 5 km/c/Mpc; H = 71+4-3 km/c/Mpc; WMAP-2003.
WMAP, CBI, ACBAR 2003: H = 73 +/- 5 km/c/Mpc;
WMAPext+2dF 2003: H = 73 +/- 3 km/c/Mpc.

The main conclusion:
Gravity negative pressure is completely compensated by the CMB radiation pressure. CMB radiation is the antigravity, invented eighty ears ago by Einstein. CMB radiation is the positive dark energy, "invented" by the contemporary supporters of BB theory. Gravithermal radiation is the negative dark energy. The total sum of the negative and positive dark energy in the Universe is zero.

Dark Energy and Dark Matter.

In order to satisfy the observational data, contemporary cosmologists were forced to reincarnate the antigravity, l-coefficient, which was firstly introduced by Einstein in his original static model, and which was named now as "dark energy".

Cosmic Journeys:

Scientists are at the edge of their seats. In recent years, we have learned that 95% of the Universe is made of a type of matter or energy that we cannot see nor understand...

Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe, Michael S. Turner:

For the first time, we have a plausible, complete accounting of matter and energy in the Universe. Expressed a fraction of the critical density it goes like this: neutrinos, between 0.3% and 15%; stars, 0.5%; baryons (total), 5%; matter (total), 40%; smooth, dark energy, 60%; adding up to the critical density. This accounting is consistent with the inflationary prediction of a flat Universe and defines three dark-matter problems: Where are the dark baryons? What is the nonbaryonic dark matter? What is the nature of the dark energy? The leading candidate for the (optically) dark baryons is diffuse hot gas; the leading candidates for the nonbaryonic dark matter are slowly moving elementary particles left over from the earliest moments (cold dark matter), such as axions or neutralinos; the leading candidates for the dark energy involve fundamental physics and include a cosmological constant (vacuum energy), a rolling scalar field (quintessence), and light, frustrated topological defects.

In our model the density is about 7 times smaller. We reject from the Turner's accounting 80 % of fantastic axions, neutralinos and other quintessence. Thus, we have no problem with the dark energy. In our model, the CMB radiation performs the repulsive role of the dark energy, but CMB is "visible". The average energy density of CMB radiation in the Universe is several orders higher than the density of all other types of electromagnetic radiation.

Dark matter seems also to be quite speculative. Our candidate on the rotating role of dark matter is much more interesting! The "ghosts" of galaxies -- the objects that we see optically and fill gravitationally -- are situated behind the first pole, at z bigger than 0.51573. Ghost, grand-ghost, grand-grand-ghost are the same galaxy, but living in the different time epochs, and are visible in opposite points of a sky as a groups of close quasars with very different red shifts. Their gravity influence is not uniform and very important for us. Thus, if the gravity influence of now living galaxies is equal to 1, than the ghost's influence is equal to K-1 = 0.97931758 perform the role of dark matter. K is the coefficient received in the bottom amendment.

Moreover, our "dark" matter not only the additional rotator of contemporary galaxies, but they also perform the reproductive role. The gravity forces from opposite sides almost compensate each other if ghost is in the state of rest near the opposite pole. From the other hand, if in some place in remote past there was a big galaxy, which had a great local velocity, then now in its place its ghosts and grad-ghosts will work as a powerful rotators, which will give great chaotic linear and angular velocities to contemporary galaxies. Then in our place, the gravithermal traces of ancient galaxies and stars will rush about everywhere, causing the cyclones and anticyclones in the atmospheres of planets and stars, and in the galactic clouds of dust and gas. Thus, the gravithermal traces are the initiators of stars formation. Moreover, the arrangement of newborn stars will try to attain the arrangement of constellations from already dead stars, which are still visible in the ghosts. Thus, the genetic code of galaxies-ancestors transfers to contemporary offspring-galaxies.

It is very probable that Sun continues to interact with its star-ancestor, and rotate around it. It is very possible, that Jupiter with its satellites was condensed at the place of a ghost, when early Sun went through the dust cloud in the Galaxy. As a result, it is possible that Jupiter system shows us the appearance of the solar systems lived many billions years ago.

It is very possible that cyclones and anticyclones are the result of the changing interferential picture of gravithermal traces of ghosts. If we change in our reasoning the closed space of the Universe onto the closed space of a biological object; and the gravithermal interaction onto the electromagnetic interaction, then we will approach to the explanation of the processes of coping, growth and reproduction of living beings and their cells.


We have excluded the dark energy, but the dark matter still exist. The mass, computed in the first pert of this page, consists from two parts: barionic mass and the dark matter. Here there is the way how to find the ratio between them.

At the distance R the create the bundle of the force lines, with the density, proportional to the gravity potential:

aEuclid = Gm/R2 = 4pGm/S.

On the equator in non-Euclidean world R = (p/2)r, and area: S = 4pr2.

anon-Euclid = 4pGm/S = Gm/r2.

Let's write through the angle:

R = jr. S = 4p(sin(R/r)r); a = Gm / (sin(R/r)r)2.

The force line passes the equator at the following angles:

ji = Ri/r, = p/2; 3p/2, 5p/2...

At transition of some distance R, the force line becomes weaker by n times. Then:

at j1 = R1/r = p/2; a1 = n1Gm / r2;

j2 = R2/r = 3p/2; a2 = - n2Gm / r2;

j3 = R3/r = 5p/2; a3 = n3Gm / r2;


We are not interested in the potential, but in the density of force lines. And, as a result, we reject the "-" sign in the expression for a.

a = n1Gm / r2 + n2Gm / r2 + n3Gm / r2 + ... + niGm / r2 +...;

It is obvious, that damping coefficient is proportional to the ratio of small intervals of time, measured correspondingly on actual and conventional time scales:

ni = dtc,i / dtf,i

tc = (1-(1-H)^tf )/H = (1 - k^tf ) / (1-k); k = 1 - H.

dtc = -1/(1-k) * exp(ln(k)tf )ln(k)dtf

dtc = -(ln(1-H)1/H) k^(tf) dtf.

dtc = k^(tf) dtf.

dtc / dtf = k^(tf).

at j = p/2; tf,1 = T/4 = 1/(4H); dtc / dtf = k^(1/(4H)) = (1-H)^(1/(4H)) = e-1/4;

at j = 3p/2; tf,2 = 3T/4 = 3/(4H); dtc / dtf = e-3/4;

at j = 5p/2; tf,3 = 5T/4 = 5/(4H); dtc / dtf = e-5/4;


a = Gm / r2 * (e-1/4 +e-3/4 + e-5/4 + ... );

K = e-1/4 (1 + e-1/2 + e-1 + e-3/2 ...+ e-i/2 + ...) =
= e-1/4 (1 + e-1/2 (1 + e-1/2 + e- 1 + e-3/2...+ e-i/2 + ...))

e-1/4 (1 + e-1/2 + e-1 + e-3/2 ...+ e-i/2 + ...) = e-1/4 x

e-1/4 (1 + e-1/2 (1 + e-1/2 + e- 1 + e-3/2...+ e-i/2 + ...)) = e-1/4 (1 + e-1/2 x)

x = 1 + e-1/2 x

x = 1/(1- e-1/2)

K = e-1/4 x = e-1/4 / (1- e-1/2) = 1.97931758.

Thus we have:

Total mass and it's ghost influence: 1.97931758..;
Mass measured simultaneously: 1.
Ghost influence, or dark matter: 0.97931758..

Here is a link about the history of CMB predictions and discovery, which was made on the basis of the static model of Universe, much earlier than that was made by the supporters of the Big Bang model:

Look also the page Alpha-method, where the analogues result was received
earlier in quite different approach.

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This page was made: the 23 of February, 2002,

Last updated: the 15 of February, 2005.

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