The Essence of Time & Ages of UniverseIs our Universe eternal? Is it finite?Twenty years I answered these question: "Yes, it is eternal. Yes, it is finite, but boundless; and its volume does not change". Now I have changed my old convictions. Prevailing cosmology theory, the Big Bang, says approximately thus: "Yes, is finite, and its volume grows. No, the Universe was born at the Big Bang moment. Before the Big Bang there was no time, nor space." Let's reject the unreasonable idea of Big Bang; and let’s investigate the model developed in this work. The sphere is used here as an illustration of closed space. The area of this sphere can be calculated. Volume can be calculated. It is finite, but boundless. Earlier I considered, that the hyper-sphere of our Universe exists eternally. However then I have postulated the complete equality of 3 spatial and 1 temporal coordinates, and I have received the contradiction. How can it be: one is finite, another is eternal? The answer is simple. The contradiction was solved out in 1999!
Let's return once more on the closed sphere, such as our Earth. Let's assume, that on this sphere there are no continents, and there is only one big ocean and a multitude of floating vegetative islands (galaxies). The tiny islands are grasped by invisible long feelers of the large islands, are pulled near, and are absorbed by the large islands-cannibals. When the island becomes enough huge, he blows up, scattering everywhere on the water the seeds of new islands. Let's assume, that we in a boat between these islands. We shall try to make round-the-world travel to measure the length of an equator of this sphere. For this purpose we shall establish on every passed islands the wooden marks. But we need a long time to travel around the whole world among the wild living islands. While we were floating around of the sphere the marked islands have grown, have blown up, and the new islands were born, which were needed to be marked again. We cannot see the old wooden marks anywhere; they were completely rotted. We are moving all the time forward, but we cannot find the familiar land. We constantly open the new islands, and put them on our map. The external observer sees, how we in the twentieth time are turning around the globe researching the new and new islands. Let's try to perform another thought experiment. We have a very powerful projector and a telescope, with which we can see beyond all bounds far. The main condition is: all the time the light from projector goes along the surface of water. If the velocity of light is infinite, then after a fulfillment of one rotation around a sphere the light will return to us from opposite direction and will hit our back of the head; and then will instantly be reflected, and again will return to us in a our telescope. That is, we will see immediately our own back. It is not surprising; that is the usual model of the closed but unbounded world. Let's suppose, that immediate light has made one rotation, and along its beam we have found out one thousand islands situated approximately along our beam. That means that the length of the large circumference of the closed world is equal to one thousand of average distances between islands. Let’s now assume that light from our projector moves with such velocity, that after making one full rotation, the light will come there, where we have died a long time ago and our island is already dispersed, and new unfamiliar islands are flowing about everywhere. From the other hand, now we can see another islands, if those islands were radiating light. Photons of the already dead islands strike into our eye’s retina. Groups of photons from far dead nonexistent islands continue to bring the hidden information, which are consumed by our DNA molecules. But our telescope has no limits; and we can see more further and older and older islands-ghosts, - the infinity of ancient died islands, situated on the same finite sphere, but living in the different time epochs. We can see them, and the gravity field of those nonexistent islands-galaxies continues to influence on our galaxy. We can calculate this distance and the age of observable events. That will be actual distance and actual age of events. Those events do, influence on us. Consequently, the actual age, and actual distance are real. According to the actual scales, our Universe is infinite and eternal. From the other hand, if we know the average volume occupied by one galaxy, then we can calculate the finite number of galaxies, which live in the Closed Universe NOW. This means that our Universe is finite. It has finite conventional age, which is equal to the time of one rotation of light around the world. It has finite conventional length, which is equal to the big circumference of Universe. Computer picture of the closed
Universe. Consequently, we have two time scales: conventional and actual. Let's illustrate these scales on an example of The Bible of Time. The Bible of Time.
Properties of the Bible of Time:
Let's follow it on an example of the Bible of Time, which has only 12
cells. 1 step: constitution You certainly understand, that I wrote: "We have a good constitution". Thus the answers on the questions, written above, is: "Dualism!" Conventional length/age of the Universe is finite, and is equal to the length of its large circumference. Actual length/age of the Universe is infinite, but very far objects already do not exist, though we could see them in telescopes with unlimited resolution; and they influence on us by their gravity fields. Consequently, these scales are both real. Let's return to a phrase written in last line 12-cell book of time. On a conventional scale after 17-th step we have: "We_ave_odcot" On an actual scale: "We have a good constitution... ... ... ..." The conventional age of the letter "c" is equal 10. Actual age of the same letter is equal 16. If we make several more steps the letter "c" will disappear from my book of time with great probability. But I have took vary thin 12-cell book. I ought to take the book of time, containing 10^{20} letters. Moreover, in my vicinity there are another 10^{20} analogues books of time. In such books we can see the analogue of light red shift, as the average dispersion of neighboring letters in the one and the same cell in the variety of neighboring books of time. The further the n’th cell to the end of the books, - the bigger the dispersion of neighboring letters in these cells, the light wave expands. My Illusion of 1999, or...From the other hand we can see, as distant galaxies live more rapidly. For example, the time needed to print the word "good" is equal to four time steps. But we can see in the 17-th string that its observable time of life is equal to two time steps: "od". Here is one more illustration of a reality and necessity of the actual time scale. Let's assume, that conventional age of the Universe is equal 10 billion years; and we'll receive tomorrow the following radiogram from the quasar, which is only 1 billion years old, that is:
Let’s assume, that we have found out in a telescope all these quasars. Their conventional ages on our conventional scale are: 1 billion years; 100 million years; 10 million years; 1million years correspondingly. We see them at the distances 9 billions light years; 9.9 billions l.y.; 9.99 billions l.y.; 9.999 billions l.y.; and the horizon of Big Bang at the distance 10 billions l.y. It is obvious, that their actual ages and that actual distance to them are much greater. Let's assume, that astronomers have seen, how the people in Tea Way quasar are born, live, die faster than we in 10 times; as the people in Coffee Way quasar are born, live, die faster than we in 100 times; as the people in Star Way quasar are born, live, die faster than we in 1000 times; as the people in Juice Way quasar are born, live, die faster than we in 10000 times. And the astronomers now have already seen that the processes in far galaxies proceed faster. Tell me, how many time scales should we use in cosmology? To think that the people in those quasars are really lived faster? But they look precisely the same as do! Or to think, what the gravitational influence from those quasars comes from farther distance? Alas, observable distances are such as conventional scale gives. Recollect the eternally written Bible of Time with constant thickness, and with the dropping out letters. So we must use both scales. But this section teaches us that there is no sense to think out absurdities such as quark-gluon plasma in the beginning of a conventional time scale. The date of beginning of Big Bang reminds the day of equinox, or the New Year day. It is quite obvious that such radiograms we shall not receive, but we can look after the behavior of stars, galaxies, and quasars to make analogues conclusions. Note: conventional age of the Universe, according to my work is not 10 but 13.34 billions years; the actual age is infinity. Solution of my above Illusion-1999.It seems, I had made an error in the above logic. The visible and real speeds of life-rate of people in far quasars is the same as our own speed of life-rate. The contradiction is eliminated by the symmetry between space and time. The shorter past meter, the shorter past second. Light needs the infinite time to come from the end to the beginning of the finite Bible of Time, if this book is not discrete, but continuous. Ages of UniverseThe linear velocity of light is equal to c=299792458 meters per second.
If our Universe has the sphere-like geometry, then one can receive the angular
velocity of light. For example, you know the linear velocity of ocean vessel,
which is measured in m/s. Divide this velocity by the radius of the Earth,
and you'll receive vessel's angular velocity, measured in rad/s. Divide
the vessel's linear velocity by the big circumference of the Earth (the
length of equator), and you'll receive the frequency, written in rotations
per second. Analogously, we can receive the frequency of light rotation
in the Universe, which is equal to H = 2.375E-18 rotation/second (or in
units, used in astronomy, H=73.3 km/s/Mpc). Multiplying it on 2p,
you will receive the angular velocity of light in the Closed Universe,
The last number, H, is Hubble CONSTANT. From Hubble CONSTANT one can receive another CONSTANT, the conventional age of Universe. T_{conventional}=1/H=4.211E+17 seconds/rotation, or 13.34 billions years / rotation. CONSTANT means the same number yesterday, today, tomorrow, in a billions years. The conventional age will be always the same T_{conventional}=13.34 billion years / rotation. The conventional age of Universe is similar to the height of squirrel in it's ever rotating wheel. Consequently T_{conventional} is the height/age of a wheel/Universe from the point of view of squirrel/cosmologist. The actual age is infinity. T_{actual} = infinity. In the conventional time scale: every past second is shorter than the next second; Connection between scales of actual and conventional ages are given by geometry progression: t = (k^{t"}-1) / (k - 1), where: t - conventional age of event, t''- actual age of event, k - factor of progression: k=(T-1)/T=1-H. The formula can by transformed to t / T = 1 - e^{-t"/T}. If we take the present second, as a a point of reference, then the moment of time, t, when the event had happened, and the age of the event, t, will have different signs. And the formula will slightly change t / T = e^{t"/T}- 1. In the bottom table I have shown the connection between ages. In the first column is the actual time scale, measured into past in billions years; in the second column is the conventional age, also in billions of years, in the third column is the difference between ages.
One can see "the big bang" only in the conventional time scale. In the actual time scale the big bang never was. From the letter to news group:H - is Hubble CONSTANT. H=73.3 km/s/Mpc Time and information must have quantum properties. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Every line contains 20 numbers. This number corresponds to conventional age of microUniverse, with 20-bit book of time. Pay attention on the last number in the bottom 20 lines. This number fluctuates averagely from forty to fifty. I would name it "Magican Time of Universe". If we take the Universe which has 100-bit history, then conventional age is equal to 100, and the Magican Time is about 600-800. In reality we have to take not 20-bit or no 100-bit history, but N=3.09*10^{20} - bit history for every quantum direction. Here is several strings from 100-bit history : 1) numeration of events into past: 2) one event have occurred, 71-st bit (or time element) disappeared,
the others shifted on one unit: 3) second event have occurred, 52-nd bit disappeared, the others shifted: ... 900) 899 event had occurred, the Magican number - 990: 1000) 999 event had occurred, the Magican number - 613. 1100) the Magican number - 713. 1200) the Magican number, (or age) = 532. 1300) the Magican number / age = 632 In these presentation the conventional age of Universe: T_{c}=100 units. Magican Age fluctuates about 600-800 units. How big will be the Magican Age if T_{c}= N = 3.09E+20? ChronometersTime is macroscopic concept. The time is successive set of events for macroobserver. In microlevel the time is simply 4-th space axis. In microlevel all axes are equivalent. All 4d directions are equivalent. The space-time can be represented as 4d quasi closed lattice. Lattice has defects, rotating in different planes. Defects, rotating synchronically, compose elemental particles. At some angles rotating lattice's links compose synchronous sets of dots. Such we receive stabile particles: protons and electrons. Neutrons compose non synchronous sets of dots. And free neutrons decay. Such we have precise chronometers: as proton and electron, and bad chronometers: as non stable particles. Protons and neutrons can compose another stable particles - nucleus. Most stable of them are good chronometers. Unstable nucleus "tick" in dissonance with the space-time lattice and decay. The next set of chronometers are atoms and conglomerates of atoms. Most important chronometers on this level is the ratio of gravity to electro forces between 2 electrons, between electron and proton, between 2 protons. This level of chronometers give us the boundary between gravity and electromagnetic regions of single scale of fluctuations. The next set of chronometers are we and all species in biosphere. The next set of chronometers is defined by stability of Solar system. It seems, here there is one big white spot on the beautiful body of GR. If one equalize the process of space expansion and the process of space absorption by massive bodies, one would receive the planet's orbits in the exact places, where they are now, and one would receive the explanation of stability of the solar system. The next set of chronometers are galaxies and Universe itself. The rate of this chronometers is defined by Hubble CONSTANT. All types of chronometers are interconnected. Some of connections are already found in Space Genetics. The rate of time flow for macroobserver is dependent of his scale. For example, the rate of time for child and for his parents are slightly different; the rate of time for humane and his cells are greatly different. Our main measure of rate of time flow is "flash". If we could make actions more quickly as 0.00136 seconds, then this would signified the reality of time machine. It's pity--we can not do it--but our brain cells can make decisions more quickly as in 0.00136 seconds, and if cells make several solutions at this time, then the most clever decision is realized. This means the accumulation of knowledge; this means the correctly directed way of work of brain. Connections between chronometers:Proton chronometer n_{pr}: N=sqr(n_{pr}/H)
"Big Bang", "Scale Expanding Cosmos", or "Space Genetics"... ?You can find very interesting cosmology theory in the web-site
Dear Jogan! Our theories are true!!! In these days, 16-19 December 1999, I received some excellent results: If time is described by expression t_{c}=(k^t_{a}-1)/(k - 1), and if our Universe is closed, then it has peculiarities at t_{a}=T_{c}=1/H, and consequently:
Now the observational dates are needed. If this is coincide with observations then "Big Bang" is finished. The era of SEC and SG begins... The received results are applicable in the study of distribution of quasars and galaxies. Read the section Concentrations of Galaxies & Quasars for more details about galaxies and their ghosts. Big Bang religion must be defeated!Mainstream cosmology leads to the conclusion that stars will burn out and die. Their Universe will be the cemetery of dead black galaxies inhabited by cold corps-stars. Big bang and black holes are favorite fairy tales of modern cosmologists. These tales are built on the basis of the greatest error in the physics of 20-th century. It is the application of the second law of thermodynamics outside the limits of its applicability. This erroneous application of this law leads not only to the erroneous cosmology, but also to the erroneous astrophysics and geology. The crude error continue to widespread. Billions of erroneous books, magazines, articles in newspapers are published every year all over the world. Millions of teachers continue to educate erroneous sciences. Millions of grief-specialists continue to receive salaries and prizes for special developments of nonsense religion topics: "first three seconds and microseconds, pimples in the mouths of black holes, singularities, other untreatable fantastic rubbish". Infection of big bang plague must be stopped. This pseudoscientific contemporary religion prevents the development of science in different branches. Specialists, who are quite far from cosmology, can not know that it is a falsification. As a result, they can make mistakes in their own special branches of science. For example, to reject received results, which does not coincide to the chronology of big bang fairy tale. Or to seek for erroneous explanations of the solar neutrino deficit. But in the world there is much less group of scientists, who try to correct this main mistake and its consequences. They are scattered all over the world. They are not organized. They are ridiculed in their organizations. They are usually named crackpots or morons, by mainstream cosmologists. They have difficulties in publishing their results. And so, they frequently don't know the results of their like-minded colleagues. But who are morons? Let's see. Mainstream cosmologists are blind. When they saw the simple process, described by v=Hr, they shouted: "Universe expands!" But much more earlier they saw slightly more complex process, described by the Newton law; and no one cried: "Massive objects absorbs the space, Universe shrinks!" It's simple! These two processes compensate each other. In order to understand these two processes, one must change "bubble" model of Universe, which shows only one process, its expansion, on the water model, which describes these two processes together. The water model is shown on the page "Ever Young Universe". Such model can be made in every secondary school in order to show children how one can see one process, expansion of space, and to be blind to another process, absorption of space. The solution of energy conservation law in this model is more complex. Nevertheless, this problem was also solved and you can find the solution in the page "Sun Energy". The time is connected with information. The value of information in Universe is CONSTANT. Old information is spontaneously lost. As a result every past second must look slightly shorter then the next second. 2009-note. Couple of years ago I had found the fourth type of velocities, which had filled some empty places in the theory. Bay the way, four velocities gives four times, which can by named, correspondingly: coordinate time, trigonometric or quantable time, hyperbolic or additive time, and proper time. The time will show, what are common in these types of time with times, discussed above, actual time and conventional time. Just look at some formulae: v/c = th(r/c) = (e^{r}^{/c}-e^{-r}^{/c})/(e^{r}^{/c}+e^{-r}^{/c}), b/c = sh(r/c) = (e^{r}^{/c}-e^{-r}^{/c})/2, g = ch(r/c) = (e^{r}^{/c}+e^{-r}^{/c})/2. and compare: t / T = e^{t"/T}- 1. "By the way" number 2. The last formula can by transformed to T + t = T*e^{t"/T}. Which after substitution t_{BB} = T+t transforms and look the formula of above mentioned C. Johan Masreliez: t_{BB} = T*e^{t"/T}. This page was made: 22 June 1999, darkenergy@yandex.ru Ivan Gorelik. |