# UNIVERSAL UNITS

The material here is very hard for perception, at least for me. It is desirable to read at first the sections: Normalized Units and SI Mechanical. If you don’t want to brake your brain, you can simply look at the table bellow and to see a lot of “1”. You can also see there only a few dimensionless numbers such as: a, mass ratio between proton and electron mpr/mel, and the main quantum number, used in this work, N. The received unities “1” are not approximations, but precise values of physical quantities. You can download the used formulas and CODATA values to examine this my assertion. The results received here are convincing evidence of the ideas, which were proposed here:

• There is only one particle/antiparticle in our space-time-matter, - it is the defective (extra/absent) link of a lattice;
• The space-time-matter is highly symmetric;

Dimensionality of our space-time-matter is highly connected to the dimensionality of the system of units, or to the quantity of dimensionless numbers used in the simplest system of units. The received quantity says that our space-time-matter is not so multidimensional, as proposed by some theories.

Methodological error in the study of closed spaces.

It is clear now that space-time of our Universe has the topology, which reminds a topology of a sphere. Consequently, in the general accepted methods of space-time study there is a methodological error. It is connected with inequality between space-time units, which are the base units, and the angle units, which are derived units.

• Base quantities and their symbols in SI are: length (m), mass (kg), time (s), electric current (A), thermodynamic temperature (K), amount of substance (mol), luminous intensity (cd).
• Some of derived units and their symbols are: area (m2), volume (m3), velocity (m/s), mass density (kg/m3), wave number (1/m)… plane angle (rad or nothing).

In the closed space such units as length, time, angle, phase of oscillations must be equivalent.

Flash is a synchronization act, and the unit of the cause and effect connections.

The Universal Units (UU) is the second step of normalization of units. In Normalized Units we tried to express time intervals and length intervals in single units, - flashes. There was great success, for example, the velocity of light became equal to one, Planck and Hubble constants became equal numerically to Compton wavelength of proton and to the reciprocal of the main quantum number of lattice N=3.090926308E+20. In Universal Units we tried to find such units of length, time, angle, phase of oscillation that main physical constants would became equal to ones. And such time, length, turn, phase units were found. All of them are named flashes and denoted by the sign "!". Flash is a synchronization act, which occurs between components of space-time-matter. Now we know that flash is equal:

• 1.362402672E-03 s = 408438.0458 m = 1/N rot = N osc in SI units;

• 1! = 1! = 1/N rot = N osc in Normalized Units;

• 1!=1!=1!=1! in UU.

These equalities are as much correct, as we have in the case, when we measure the distance between galaxies in light years. The measuring of angle in flashes is similar to measuring it in radians, or in degrees. One full rotation can be expressed as 2p radians or as N flashes. Or one radian is equal to N/2p flashes. Consequently now we can express the plane angle through radians, meters, seconds, and flashes. It seems that flash is the most important physical unit, as the unit of the cause and effect connections. The flash is the unit of the future physics.

Equations for Normalized Units.

In the Normalized Units the following system of equations was valid:

1. N=Tn0, N=X/l0, X = c/H, T = 1/H, t0 = 1/n0, where: N - the main quantum number; X, Y, Z, T - big circumferences of Universe; c - velocity of light; H - Hubble constant; n0 - boundary frequency between gravity and electromagnetic fluctuations; l0 - boundary wave length; and t0 - boundary time.

2. N=X'=T'=1/H'; n0'=l0'=t0=1!; c=1. The stroke means that value is written in Normalizes Units.
3. Connection with minimum possible H and maximum possible mprc2/h stabile frequencies in the Universe: N=sqr(mprc2/hH).
4. Connection with ratio of forces: N2 = ap(fel/fgr), where (fel/fgr) is the forces ratio between two electrons; a is fine structure constant.
5. G' = 1 / Exp(a+1/a). This equation is still unproved to the end. So one can use the experimental value of gravity constant G, and to receive its normalized value through substitutions of units.

Equations for Universal Units.

In the Universal Units we divide the plane angle 2p radian by N angle units, "flashes"; and electromagnetic oscillation with phase 2p radian, we introduce as N's fraction of a "flash". Then the second and the fifth line of the system will be different.

1. N=Tn0, N=X/l0, X = c/H, T = 1/H, t0 = 1/n0, where: N - the main quantum number; X, Y, Z, T - big circumferences of Universe; c - velocity of light; H - Hubble constant; n0 - boundary frequency between gravity and electromagnetic fluctuations; l0 - boundary wave length; and t0 - boundary time.

2. c' = H' = X' = Y' = Z' = T' = npr' = lpr' = {h'} = {f'} = {mpr'}= {q'} = 1. The quantities in brackets are dimensional
3. Connection with minimum possible H and maximum possible mprc2/h stabile frequencies in the Universe: N=sqr(mprc2/hH).
4. Connection with ratio of forces: N2 = ap(fel/fgr), where (fel/fgr) is the forces ratio between two electrons; a is fine structure constant.
5. G' = N / Exp(a+1/a). This equation differs from the same in NU by the factor N.

The equivalentness of elementary mass mpr and elementary charge eel was proved on the new section “SI Mechanical” and in the bottom we use unique units for mass and charge, denoted by "pr", - proton.

### Comparison of SI units with UU

 Compared quantity Ratio of Units SI to UU Value of SI unit in UU Time t0 = 1.362402672E-03 s/! 1 s = 733.9973861 ! Length l0 = 408438.0458 m/! 1 m = 2.44863066E-06 ! Angle* x0 = 1/N = 3.235276097E-21 rot/! 1 rot = 3.090926308E+20 ! Phase** z0 = N = 3.090926308E+20 osc/! 1 osc = 3.235276097E-21 ! Mass km = 1.67262158E-27 kg/pr 1 kg = 5.978638624E+26 pr Charge ke = 1.602176462E-19 C/pr 1 C = 6.2415097445E+18 pr

* Circumference in UU is divided per N arcs. In SI it is divided per 2p arcs. Consequently, 1 rotation = 2p radians = N flashes.

** Proton makes N oscillations per one time flash (or per 1.362402672E-03s). Consequently, 1 oscillation = 1/N fraction of a flash circle.

### Main constants in SI and in UU

 Compared quantity Value in SI units Applying above ratios Value in UU Velocity of light c = 299792458 m/s c'=c/l0*t0 1 Hubble constant H = 3.235276097E-21 rot/s H'=H/x0*t0 1 Compton frequency of proton (per 2p rad in SI, per ! in UU) npr = 2.268731830E+23 osc/s npr'=npr/z0*t0 1 Compton wavelength of proton (per 2p rad in SI, per ! in UU) lpr = 1.321409847E-15 m/osc lpr'=lpr/l0*z0 1 Time turn of Universe (per 2p rad in SI, per ! in UU) T =4.211086260E+17 s/rot T'=T /t0*x0 1 Space turn of Universe (per 2p rad in SI, per ! in UU) X = 1.262451901E+26 m/rot X'=X/l0*x0 1 ???????? W= z0/x0 = 9.553825439E+40 osc/rot W'=W/z0*x0 1 Elementary charge 1.602176462E-19 C q'=q/ke 1 pr Planck constant h =6.626068756E-34 J*s/osc or kg*m2/s/osc h' = h/km/l02*t0*z0 1 pr Quantum of force f = hc/l02 = 1.190760067E-36 N*rot or kg*m*rot/s2 f' = ft02/(x0kml0) 1 pr Proton mass 1.67262158E-27 kg mpr'=mpr/km 1 pr Electron mass 9.109381876E-31 kg mel'=mel/km 1/1836.1526765 pr Fine structure constant 7.297352533E-03 a'=a 7.297352533E-03 Gravity constant 6.671479888E-11 m3rot/(s2kg) G' = Gt02km/l03/x0 = N/exp(a+1/a) !2/pr 9.395955108E-40 !2/pr Electric constant e0 = 8.85418782E-12 F*osc/m, C2osc/(m2N), C2s2osc/(m3kg) e0'= e0kml03/t02/ke2/z0 = qpr'2/2/a'/mpr' = 1/(2a) 68.51799988 pr Magnetic constant m0=1/c2e0= 4p*E-7 (s2N)/osc/C2 m0'=1/e0'= 2a 1.459470507E-02 1/pr Impedance Z0=sqr(m0/e0) = 376.730313461771 Ohm/osc, s/m*N/osc/C2 Z0'=m0'= 2a 1.459470507E-02 1/pr

In the last column one can see only "1", and combinations of dimensionless numbers a, N, mpr/mpr. One can receive the exact values off all constants in SI by reverse substitution of the space, time, angle, phase, mass, charge coefficients.