Do you know that such fuel as coal, oil, gas will be finished in a 50-100 years?
Uranium ore will also be exhausted in 150-300 years.
Hydrogen (deuterium) fuel would be sufficient for thousands years, but it seems that thermonuclear energetic is very expensive deadlock.
Solar-, tidal-, wind-, water-power resources are insufficient to meet the growing expenses of mankind.
Your grandchildren will have no light, no heat, and no other conveniences at their homes. They have no computers, nor cars, no plastic pens, packets. The streets will be dark at nights. There will not be buses at future streets, if we shall not found the fuel for them.
It seems, I had already found the plenty of fuel. This fuel will be sufficient for mankind for many millions years if the mankind would be rational and thrifty. This fuel will be exhausted in 50-100 years if the mankind would be egoistic and wasteful.
Dear reader, is the time had come to know this fuel? Is our civilization become wisdom, or is it egoistic glutton yet? Will it think about the prosperity of future generations, or will it steal their grandchildren light and push them into hungry degradation.
These two ways of our new fuel are placed in the bottom table.
|Reactions for thrifty mankind.||Reactions for egoistic civilization.|
+ p --> Ca40 + n + 0.529
K39 + n --> K40 + 7.8 MeV.
+ p --> Ca40 + n + 0.529
Xn + n --> Zn+1 + 100 MeV.
|Will be sufficient for many millions years.||Will be sufficient for hundreds of years.|
In May of 2000 I come to logical deduction of Arc Effect. It leads to fundamental revision of internal structure of stars, and it led me to the idea of the GraviThermal Coil.
In 2003 and 2004 I had developed the idea of GraviThermal Coil, in order to perform the press-nuclear fusion inside it. It was transformed in my head from one-kilometer monster (2000) into a compact power-machine, with diameter equal to one meter approximately (2004). The new name of this device is Russian Toroidal Matryoshka (RTM). I tried mentally to risen the pressure, but it was still small in order to start the hydrogen fusion. And at last in 2004 the new type of nuclear reactions were invented, - the press-nuclear reactions with catalyst. The fuel is H1 and K39. The catalyst is K40.
The essence of RTM and press-nuclear reactions were explained in my two speeches at the conference "Science & Future", which were held in Russia, Moscow, the 13-16 of April 2004, and in May 2005. http://darkenergy.narod.ru/motja.html, http://darkenergy.narod.ru/motja2.html.
Nevertheless, professional scientists will hardly take me seriously. Professionals as a rule just hate and laugh above the amateur scientists and independent researchers. Me, the schoolteacher of the lowest category cannot be allowed to publish an article in scientific journal.
The first reaction of this type was the following almost impossible reaction:
K40+K40 --> Ar40+Ca40.
You would ask: "Way did you take K40? I'll take for example Si28 and shall perform the reaction Si28+Si28 --> Fe28."
No, K40 is unique isotope. It is the radioactive isotope with the time of half-decay of the order of 109 years. That is why it still exists in the Earth. Besides this isotope decays by two opposite branches: transforming into Ca40 with emitting of electron and antineutrino, or into Ar40 emitting of positron and neutrino.
The essence of the idea is in the following. We push one K40 atom in the neutron-deficit state. We push another K40 atom in neutron-excess state. Then we compress these two atoms and accelerate their transformation into a pair Ca40 and Ar40, without electron-positron emission.
The expected cross-section of this reaction is very small. We can increase it by changing the K40 atom in the neutron-deficit state into some other neutron-deficit atom. But as we know the most neutron-deficit atom is the hydrogen isotope H1, or p.
K40 + p --> Ca40 + n + 0.529 MeV.
The expected cross-section of this reaction was promising. Then I found the theoretical value of this reaction. It is indeed comparable to reactions, which are investigated as candidates for thermonuclear reaction. It is not excluded that this reaction can be used as thermonuclear reactions. But I expected to conduct this reaction in RTM, as press-nuclear reaction.
RTM creates very high pressures and can divide isotopes. As you have guessed, I want to divide the mixture of K39 and K40 inside RTM, send the K40 into the central spire of RTM (first reaction zone). The appearing neutron supposed to fly out of this zone and will be captured by K39 isotope, transforming into K40, which will slowly drift to the central spire.
Of course, these reactions could be tested in Tokamak also.
The unique property of the pair of equations
K40 + H1 --> Ca40 + n + 0.529 MeV,
K39 + n --> K40 + 7.8 MeV,
is in the following, - the abundant isotopes K39 and H1 are burning out, but the precious rare isotope K40 is restored.
Let's try to find the analogues reaction on the following scheme. We take some neutron-excess isotope and bombard it by the H1 isotope, and then compute the energy out put.
H3 + H1
--> n + He3 - 764 keV. The
energy output is negative; reaction is impossible. Besides H3
is absent in the natural mixture of hydrogen.
He4 + H1 --> n + Li4 - 23487 keV. The energy output is negative; reaction is impossible.
K40 + H1 --> n + Ca4 + 529.2 keV. This is our unique reaction.
V50 + H1 --> n + Cr48 + 256.3 keV. Good reaction but in the natural mixture of V there is no partner. This reaction can be used in pair with another capturing element. Vanadium is not the Energy Klondike.
In115, It seems there is a typo in my reference book. Besides the In115 isotope is very rare in the mixture of natural In.
La138 + H1 --> n + Ce138 + 258.6 keV. Very rare in the Earth crust.
Lu176 + H1 --> n + Hf176 + 403.6 keV. Very rare in the Earth crust.
Ta180 + H1 --> n + W180 - 72 keV. Very rare in the Earth crust.
Thus we looked through the whole periodic system and found only six isotopes, suitable for our reaction type. Let's look another reference book, - the abundances of isotopes in the natural mixtures of corresponding elements:
K40 - 0.0117%,
V50 - 0.25%,
In115 - 95.7%,
La138 - 0.09%,
Lu176 - 2.59%,
Ta180 - 0.012%.
Abundances of correspondent elements in the Earth crust.
K - 2.35%,
V - 0.02%,
In - 10-5 %,
La - 0.00065 %,
Lu - 0.00017 %,
Ta - 0.000024 %.
Abundances of correspondent isotopes in the Earth crust.
K40 - 0.000275%,
V50 - 0.00005%,
In115 - 0.00001%,
La138 - 0.0000006%,
Lu176 - 0.0000044%,
Ta180 - 0.000000002%.
In order to restore isotope with mass-number N, by the neutron capture, it is necessary the existence of the isotope with mass-number N-1 in nature. In the following table we wrote such possibilities.
K39 - 93.26%,
V49 - no,
In114 - no,
La137 - no,
Lu175 - 97.41%,
Ta179 - no.
In order to compare the received data, let's look at uranium. Abundances of U
in the Earth crust
U - 0.0004%.
In the natural mixture it is represented by the following isotopes:
U234 - 0.0055%,
U235 - 0.72%
U238 - 99.2745%
Let's answer, which fuel is the most widespread on our planet.
If we shall conduct the reaction of the following type
Xn + H1 --> n + Yn + Q1;
n + Xn-1 --- Xn + Q2,
then the first place will be taken by K39+H, with restoring isotope K40,
This nuclear fuel is more abundant than uranium U235 by the factor of million, (U235: 0.000004%).
The second place takes the deuterium, if the thermonuclear fusion will be economically
profitable. The abundance of deuterium in the natural mixture of hydrogen is 0.015%
and in the Earth is 0,00015%.
The third place was taken by U238, but it does not burn alone.
The forth place was taken by Lu175 with catalyst Lu176,
but the probability of reaction is extremely small because it has 71 protons.
(Lu175: 0.00017 %).
The fifth place was taken by V50 in the reaction without catalyst.
The second reaction (neutron capture) could by, for example U238.
The sixth place takes the isotope U235.
If K39 will be used without restoring reaction it will drop at the third place and will be exhausted thousands times quicker.
Electrical charge of K is quite big, 19. Nevertheless the cross-sections of discussed reaction is comparative to cross-sections of deuterium atom.
The theoretical value of reaction I have found at arXiv: nucl-th/0104003 v1 2
Apr 2001 with tables at:
I'll transform the table in more convenient form.
In the first column there is the energy of proton.
In the second column there is the cross-section of the reaction K40 + p -> Ca40 + n.
Of course, the cross-sections are quite small, but I hope that there must be some resonances, which could be found experimentally. The resonances could occur because of the GraviThermal Coil is in the state of very high-velocity rotation ~ 1000 Hz.
The second reaction, neutron capture, gives no doubt.
Russian Toroidal Matryoshka & Press-Nuclear Reactions with catalyst.
This page was translated from Russian the 25 of March 2007.
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