Sorry, the original text of this page is under translation from Russian into English now. But, I propose you to read my letter about Photons, Supernovae, Black Holes and Quasars, send to some news groups.


Single photon is massless.
Pair of photons, moving in one direction, is massless.
Pair of photons, moving in opposite directions, has the rest mass.
One cubic meter of photon gas at the temperature 1000000000 K,
enclosed in some reservoir, has the rest mass 8400 kg.
Free radiation, moving in one direction, at any temperature is massless.
The cause is in the formula:
Single photon; pair of photons, moving in one direction; radiation, moving in one direction, have nonzero momentum p=E/c, and zero rest mass m=0.
Pair of photons, moving in opposite directions, has: zero momentum p=0, and nonzero rest mass m=E/c^2.
This is not my idea. It is generally known.


My idea is the following:
Mass of presupernova consists of two comparatively equal parts:
1. the mass of the matter shell of presupernova;
2. the mass of the radiation, enclosed by the shell.

The supernova explodes, when a hole is burned in the shell.
Radiation acquire the direction and momentum, and, as a result, supernova losses half of it's mass. As a result, we can register the huge gravity wave. We can also register the gamma splash, if the hole in the shell is directed at us. The remnants of supernovae also acquire the momentum and moves with high velocity in the direction opposite to the direction of gamma splash. High common residual velocities of remnants of supernovae is observable fact.

After the light had left the supernova, after immediately following first explosion of overheated rarefied gas in the cavity of supernova, the shell begins to fall to it's center, and in several hours (in the case of SN1987A, t = 4 hours 44 minutes) it gathers in the center, the second explosion takes place, and the neutrino detectors on the Earth register the second neutrino splash. This my scenario of supernova explosion completely contradicts to the general accepted ideas of collapse of supernova into black hole.

Black Holes.

I exclude the black holes in the form of a funnel. But
I do not exclude the black holes in the form of a bubble.
You can look the geometry of bubble in bubble, in bubble,.. at the page:

The cause of impossibility of a funnel black hole is hidden in the Gravigeometric Paradox, which says, that the center of any cosmic massive object is rarefied, because of the theorem:

It is possible to find the radius r, where the thermal velocities of molecules (particles) are greater, then the first cosmic velocity for this radius. The first cosmic velocity: v=sqr(GM/r). If we move from this radius r to the center, the pressure and density of the matter will decreased. (Here we speak about the pressure of the matter or about the pressure of the substance, but inside of the objects there is also the pressure of radiation.)


Quasars are the galactic cores with the holes in the shell. They look like the above mentioned  supernovae, but their dimensions are much more bigger. The shell of quasar has constant, slightly variable holes. The radiation inside of the shell of quasar has the temperature, less then the temperature of supernova radiation. Through the holes of quasar's shell the radiation and high temperature ionized gas strives outside. As a result, we can see huge jets, extended far from some galaxies. If one of the holes in the shell of galactic core is directed at us, we can see the phenomenon of quasar, as a bright searchlight. Variability of dimensions of the hole in the shell of quasar is responsible for the observable variability of quasar. Gas, emitted through the hole, leaves several series of absorption lines in the spectrum of quasar.

Internet Links:

Adam Burrows' Home Page

To index of Space Genetics Ivan Gorelik.

My Curriculum Vitae.


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