My good friend from USA, Dave Orton, wrote: "...closed (impossible)
Universe..." But I would say that open Universe has no chances
to exist. If it is open, then it is flat, infinite. Consequently,
it has an infinite mass and it has the infinity of infinities
of such infinite masses. This does not contradict to the
modern "expanding" cosmology, but it is in full contradiction
with common sense. I think that some people can not perceive
the closed geometry because of the impossibility of imagination
of such world. In order to simplify such imagination, I
decided to show here my method of imagination of closed
three-dimensional world in the successive set of figures.
I don't know, who else uses such method and didn't saw such
pictures earlier. So if somebody will use bottom pictures
in publications, I would be glad to know about that.
In the figure bellow you can see the FLAT section
of the universe. Red dots are not stars, but galaxies,
or clusters of galaxies, and huge walls of galaxies. Every
point of this FLAT section of universe can be regarded as
central, every direction is equivalent to all others; consequently,
we have the homogeneous, uniform Universe.
The radius r of the sphere
on the figure, or the radius of the cross section of universe
is its radius of curvature. The length of the arc AC on
the figure, which is denoted by R, equals to
pr. Consequently, the area of
the cross section of the Universe is equal to the area of
the sphere on the figure. We can put an observer in any
point of the sphere. Let he stays on the top point of it.
Then we take a needle and make a small hole on the sphere
in the most distant point from the observer. And now we
stretch out the hole in such way, that the length of the
line AC and every part of it was not changed, but our sphere
must be stretched on the flat plane surface.
In the next figure we can see one half of closed universe.
It is clear, that relatively THIS observer, the galaxies,
situated near the border, which was only the point of puncture,
will be looking deformed. But these deformations are only
apparent for THIS observer. From the point of view of the
observer, situated in the point C, the observer A and his
galaxy will be "smeared" on the same boundary sphere.
It is clear, that the length of the most distant circumference,
surrounding the observer will be equal to zero, because
it was only the point of puncture. Consequently, the area
of the most distant sphere, surrounding the observer and
the whole universe, will also be equal to zero.
One must not to be Einstein in order to derive the volume
of closed universe. And now it is clear that the most distant
object in the universe is our own back of the head. The
last is valid in the case of infinite velocity of light.
But if the velocity of light were finite, then in the furthest
point we would see the galaxies-ghosts that died far ago,
and which are the ancestors of our galaxy. Behind that point
is the territory that was occupied by more ancient galaxies-ghosts,
but now this territory is occupied by new generation of
galaxies, which we can see now much closer from opposite
Click here to see the computer picture of closed
, jpg 116 kb, which will help you to understand, why in
static closed Universe there is a Cosmic Background Microwave
radiation with temperature about 3 K. Connection
between the curvature radius and the specific energy of
CBR is very clear and simple. Big Bang model or flat infinite
model of Universe cannot give such short and understandable
relation between the main physical constants of the big
Universe and microcosmos:
H: curvature radius and Hubble constant;
u, T: specific energy and temperature of CBR;
M: density of matter, and mass of the Universe.